Moments for Mentees to be inducted as Mentors: Reflections of my journey as a Mentee

It has been an awesome experience to assume the role as a mentee, a subtle and humble position to be in order to learn from the experienced yet boastful and knowledgeable. Anyone stands the chance of becoming a mentor only when you adequate knowledge and have gone through the rudiments of whatever you wish to share with others who are yet to pass through. My mentors in this case were 2nd year students of the LET program who by virtue of their academic positions stood the chance of sharing with us, their experiences and challenges that they have encounter especially during their first year of studies.

men

As a mentee, I had no choice but to absorb and make critical assessments of what were relevant to my studies and what could be a foundational guide to my future aspirations.

Our first encounter proved that without this process, there will not be opportunities for development in others both mentors and mentees. As far back as I could remember, our Mentors were not confident from the beginning especially regarding what to do but I believed there were a lot of hidden academic and life experienced treasures hidden in them. We set the ball rolling, and curious mentees started with their naïve questions ranging from academic work; theses to social life etc. This got our Mentors to roar with their challenges and how they have overcome them.

During these moments I realized the following plans were the things which actually guided our journey beginning from day one.

Introduction of who we were and our reason for coming together for the purpose of such activity.

The setting up of plans, goals and agenda

Being active and not passive participators in the process

Creation of enabling and conducive environment where knowledge sharing could flow easily

Engaging in explorations of new ideas and methods

These, among many others are what I can as a mentee say that guided as through our journey. The decision taking among both mentors and mentees were flexible for the absolute purpose of learning. We considered our first meeting to focus on having an informal discussion where we got to know our Mentors as Dylan, Ruicen and Joni (second, year students) and Mentees an Huong, Henry, Sergei and I. It was amazing how we manage to survive with our introduction and unveiling of cultural differences and also our various reasons for studying this program. We also touched on life after school and career planning and development. Thesis was one aspect which took attention especially as we as mentees were in the initial process of facing the thesis journey. We heard from our mentors how they have managed this far with their thesis and what could be beneficial towards our work. Several recommendations were given on how to proceed and finish successfully. They also talked on things they would have done differently if they had known something. It was inspiring and informative as well since it was meant to shape of ideas and hopes of what we wish to achieve.

From this stage we set our next meeting to cover activities which will enlighten our understanding of being under trainee-ship and submitting to experienced ones. We considered and accepted the following activities which were helpful and excitement as well.

1 Beer and Mead making tutorial.

2 Polar Bear Pitching Event.

3 Career Workshop.

4 BBQ party.

Altogether, these activities were enriching and served as a clear path through which mentees can also emulate to become future mentors. It gave us the opportunity to interact and not just watch what goes on but to have a perspective which ushers us into maturity state of mentorship.

I should also hasten to add our general meeting with other mentoring group in open class section where we discuss and share what we have learnt so far. I made significant stride by learning from and listening to other mentoring group when they share their knowledge of the educational systems in their various countries of origin.

Again, I also benefitted from Hyvonen Einari, an artist with a specialization in 3D painting. He talk was educative and reflects on the relationship between a mentor and mentee and how dynamic a mentee must be in order to set right his/her future ideas. I tend to believe that every mentee has an idea that inspires him/her to take the step of following a mentor. Einari demonstrated this by not just following his mentor what he does but to acquire his mentor’s experiences and build on and shape his own ideas through his mentor’s years of experience.

At this stage, I take into consideration my role as a Kummi and how I will utilize this experience to my new role. I actually consider this as me being a mentor since I am required to help my students to know and feel at home in oulu. I will also try as much as possible to clear doubts regarding their naivety. I have already started but not in its full shape.

All in all, I am extremely grateful to my mentors who I thank them for having done a great job. I have learnt and I do hope to become a great and good mentor to other first year students which I have already started to demonstrate.

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EXPERT PROFILE 2

How is you expertise developed during the bygone LET studies?

To begin with my experience in the LET, it has been a fruitful journey and it couldn’t have been any better had it not being for the support of the expert staff. The lecturers have understanding in the thematic areas which makes it practically evident in our studies. During my write up for the process of mentoring, I indicated the process of learning by means of learning curve. This concept to me, is important when dealing with your development through a learning process. I recall my experience on cooking when I came to Oulu, it began by making a bad taste food but as I continued from time to time, the taste started improving. Same way I do relate my experience especially in our LET studies. It is astonishing how time flies: from September to February. We have been through enough lectures as well as assignments that gave us the opportunity to practice what we are being trained to become. I wouldn’t claim that my learning curve has substantially risen higher but it has neither been stagnant nor plummeted. During this period, there has been a lot of social interactions, reflections, readings and many more that serves as a mirror which projects the image of that which you’re building. As indicated in the article Susanne P. Lajoie, they note that the development of expertise has two goals to achieve and these are determination of what Experts know and to determine how to help novices acquire similar competencies. As I develop my expertise, considering the time we have spent so far and what we are yet to spend, I hope to grasp and be convinced of what I know in my domain as well as to exhibit knowledge of knowing how to help novices (especially when I’m a mentor), acquire essential competencies that are needed for expertise development. If I am able to recognize what I know, it is a right step to set sail by knowing how to execute my task and help others to develop.

I have come to realize that as an Expert you should be able to portray the following characteristics:

  1. Better awareness of what they know and do not know
  2. Superior memory for information in their domain
  3. Faster and more accurate solutions
  4. Deeper, more highly structured knowledge.

With these characteristics suggested by Susanne P. Lajoie in the article, I have set my learning curve on it and I do expect to exhibit them within my LET. As I also indicated from the beginning of this write up, there are aspects of LET studies that I have acquired these traits owing to the fact that I have practiced very often and the knowledge has become internalized. For example, the use of self-regulation is one that cannot be ignored during my experience for the past few months.

In what situations your self-regulation skills has been necessary for you? Provide some examples of those situations.

  1. a) in study contexts
  2. b) in work life or in hobbies
  3. c) in other informal context

Self-regulation as a concept spans across our entire LET studies and even beyond the scope of our program. It is a concept that must be taught in various discipline to bring out the competence in people’s area of expertise. Of course I don’t mean to say Experts in other fields cannot self-regulate but I’m with the conviction that they are not aware of it but they somehow self-regulate sub-consciously. To me, it is an opportunity to be aware of it and as I have learnt from researchers, having knowledge of something is a key indication of approaching success. In the context of my studies, there are numerous examples that I could cite from but to narrow down to specifics and substantial ones, self-regulation has been of importance since there have been tasks that seem to be insurmountable from the beginning. As difficult as these tasks seem to be, I first had to set goals and think of the most effective way of executing these goals. Again as I begin work on the plan that I have outlined, I reflect on the work from the beginning, during and at the end of the task. I do it to ensure proper evaluation.

Considering the context of work life or in hobbies, I will say, it has been useful much better than in classroom settings. I have consciously taken the time to study what SRL means to me. Before, I do regulate unknowingly but not as accurate as I became familiar with the concept. As member of AIESEC Oulu, one of the largest student run organization in the world, I employ the SR strategies in the execution of my tasks. Over there I work with clients and colleagues as well, and without proper self-regulation skills, I would have contributed to the failure of group collaboration that lack motivation. This is not limited to informal context I guess, since some of my peers, I do regard the social interaction between us as strictly formal. In that sense my exhibition of SR skills come to play. It helps me to build a cohesion that can stand the test of time.

How have you performed in difficult or complex situations? Give some examples of such situations.

  1. a) in study contexts
  2. b) in work life or in hobbies
  3. c) in other informal context

Performance could either be positive or negative. Even on the basis of negative performance, the ability, energy of the individual must be given recognition. The most interesting of all is the positive performance of which I do subscribe to. But even with this, there is a degree to which people to perform positively. If a teacher sets the pass mark of an examination to be 50 out of 100, anything beyond fifty will be considered positive performance, however others could go as high as 100 to still have a recognition of positive performance.

My performance in difficult or complex situations in the context of studies was when we were tasked with teaching sessions. All other groups were three in number except for my group which we were only two. To add to this, I was still on my learning curve and it wasn’t any better in SR as compared to now (even though I expect the future to be better than before). We had to acknowledge the fact that we were responsible for our learning and that we must share knowledge. Before beginning our task, there were unstable emotions, motivations seem to be absent. Task understanding was some-how missing. We had to come together to brainstorm in a f2f meeting. We divided the task amongst ourselves and started working collaboratively. We used the available technologies that could bridge our gap. This we were able to achieve the needed results all because we understood that there should be a way of sharing our emotions socially and be responsible for our actions. We also sought for help by means of asking our peers how they manage to sail through their task.

In the context of work life, I still use my freshest moment of experience with AIESEC here in Oulu. I had to interview some few students who are about to go for internship abroad. I quickly realized I need to plan the entire process of interview and know what to expect. I managed to deal with the task only when I had planned and followed the steps. I compared the task to my previous experience in similar situation. I think I had unique and efficient strategies this time round than before. Students who are self-regulated learners believe that opportunities to take on challenging tasks, practice their learning, develop a deep understanding of subject matter, and exert effort will give rise to academic success (Perry et al., 2006). In this same way, I have depended on SR which I think has taught me to assess my strength and potentials, recognize the best strategies which are good for what task.

How collaborative learning has been realized?  Give some examples of your role and performance on collaborative learning.

Collaboration is the most interesting area of my studies and I have decided to build my thesis around it even though I’m not quite clear on my topic. This is one of the pillars in the learning sciences which emphasizes group participation and knowledge building. As I learnt from the article by Scardamalia & Bereiter, knowledge building is the modification of or creation of public knowledge and they emphasize that the process of creating or modifying this knowledge comes about by group discussion and synthesis of ideas. Working collaboratively gives an endless opportunities to explore knowledge since knowledge construction in itself is a shared principle. You will never know how well or bad your SRL skills are until you work in group task. During last semester I had the opportunity to participate in collaborative work. The task was quite different and exciting. None of my group members was physically present and this was the time I felt real CSCL in practice. We had to communicate, brainstorm and work through personal learning environments and any other social media we found helpful. During this period, I knew the inactive of one member will ruin the group collaboration and I also recall instances where I would not have done my part if I were to work individually. We were working cooperatively to complement collaboration so tasks were divided among ourselves. I recount one instance where I was asked to research on theories regarding CSCL and based on the theories another person will build on. I had to work against my will and time because the group needed it. To me, collaboration helps individuals to shape their SRL skills in a manner that’s is useful and efficient. This is where emotions and motivations to succeed are shared among members.

Set three goals for your learning for the spring period. 

My goals for this spring are first and foremost to participate in all meetings, lectures, readings, assignments etc. regarding courses which are compulsory for our LET studies or minor studies. This I think will help me to build the ECTS credits I need as a student.

Again, I hope to finalize the nature of my topic and build up some flesh on my master’s thesis. This I hope I can achieve by the help of Hanna who is for the time being my supervisor. I also hope to read around to gather more information regarding my thesis.

Finally, to be able to combine extra curriculum activities such as student run organization with studies. I want to keep a balance of studies and other forms of knowledge engagement which I think builds up the most critical qualities an individual needs to succeed.

References:

Lajoie, P. Transitions and trajectories for studies of expertise

Bereiter, C. & Scardamalia, M. (1993). Surpassing ourselves, chapter 3 Expert knowledge and how it comes about (pp. 4375).

Mentoring as a process

The process of Mentoring.

Thinking through the idea of mentoring, one could easily say that the process of mentoring is an essential tool for development. It is the point that one receives substantial support, advice, guidance, help, and assistance in a similar portfolio where the other has adequate knowledge of. As Schön describes, the mentors may sometimes instruct in the conventional sense, they mainly function as coaches whose conversations with the learners’ highlight how to navigate the obstacles of the profession.

I have always believed that my mentor was a mental image of a personality that possesses the various expertise that I need in order to grow however, the introduction of the stage in our studies has helped to clear some doubts that this is a process which needs to be nurtured by an experienced person with the requisite knowledge in most cases to give you the push you need. The mentee must be ready to receive support from the mentor. I believe that both ends have crucial part to play in the process otherwise the result will be nothing to write home about. If the mentee appreciates the fact that he/she needs growth in the chosen field, this becomes a good platform for the process to begin it fruitful journey.

mentor

I couldn’t agree more to the opinions that mentoring has been identified as part of the growth of young people. Freedman puts it, there is a broad consensus that mentoring is an important part of young people’s intellectual, social, and emotional development (Freedman 1999). There is already an innate ability among young people that sets the game for mentoring. They either imitate expert’s performance or copy exactly the way they see things. Although there is a bit of tension regarding the issue of imitation of young people among Researchers, Vygotsky’s claim of imitation to me is more of social process of developments which affects cognitive behavior.

Hutchins (1995) uses the work of experienced navigators to explain how they help novice crewmembers to gain and develop essential navigation skills and knowledge by way of monitoring. The quartermaster watches and give feedbacks to the novice crewmembers.

Considering what the article seems to achieve, it is exciting to find how modeling regarding mentoring that takes place in professional training. This was meant for the plays to learn among other things knowledge, values and real world skills and ways of thinking. . In helping the apprentice, they show the way it is done: they model (Collins, et al. 1991). Therefore modeling is important especially when guidance is given to the novice in order to acquire the skills needed for growth.

A central role of professional mentors, however, is to model the way of thinking that is unique to their profession: what Shaffer (2006a) calls the epistemic frame. This makes a perfect way for others to follow and have a clear idea regarding growth.

Again, I reflect on the statement of being and becoming a mentor. This tells of a process and state as well when you talk about mentor. The critical and important role of a mentor lies in his/her ability to exhibit domain knowledge and be able to solve problems. This unique attribute mostly inspires mentee to follow. On the other hand, there has been an insightful information regarding what for example a Teacher as a mentor should possess. Researchers point to character and identify as also important and not only the technical acumen of required in Teacher education. By this they mean that students expect to be met by one who has caring, having moral standards etc. In a nutshell, one who knows what he/she is. They posit that self-knowledge is central to being and becoming a Teacher and that it is for this reason that there has been increasing research on in Teacher education regarding the importance of identity and identity formation(Beijaard, Meijer, & Verloop, 2004; Bullough, in press). The article made some provisions for different kinds of identity which were:

  1. Nature Identity
  2. Institutional identity
  3. Discourse Identity
  4. Affinity Identity

mentor 2

The whole process of mentoring is seen as a social process as explained by Vygotsky. There is a movement from imitation to internalization knowledge. Mentees observe and performs what they see.

In my learning process and as a mentee, I expect to be provided with feedback, be inspired when I’m stuck and I hope to be guided as well.

learning

I use the learning curve to indicate my mentoring process. I am in the process of being mentored and I hope to assume the state where I will also become a mentor. Although I may find it a bit tough to climb the ladder, I count on my mentor to provide me with the needed repertoire of skills and knowledge.

References.

Nash, P. & Shaffer Williamson, D. (2011): Mentor modeling: the internationalization of modeled professional thinking in an epistemic game. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.

Bullough, R. (2005): Being and becoming a mentor: school-based teacher educators and teacher educator identity. Teaching and Teacher Education 21(2005)

UBIKO REFLECTION

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The unique and serene atmosphere which I encountered during our visit to the most outstanding Technology Enhanced Learning environment was that of the Ubiko project. I wasn’t quite sure which level of students this project was meant for initially, however upon our visit on 25 day of November 2014 to the Oulu Teacher training school I particularly, got to know reasons behind this establishment.

The project which was funded the Finnish National Board of Education is to provide such a luxurious technology driven environment for 4th and 5th grade students (110). The design of the project was to expose the students to the use of modern technology as well as to identify their strengths and set personal goals for themselves which are achievable.

According to Heiki (not sure of the name) a teacher and resource person in-charge of the project, students often feel reluctant to go home when they have the chance to use this facility. This to me, is the genesis of introducing students to how they can self-regulate their learning. Students set their personal goals and go according to them with the aid of structured and well-designed environment.

They also engage in collaborative learning as well judging from the design of the infrastructure. Students have the opportunity to work in groups to share knowledge. It is quite clear to me that, not only do the students develop their abilities and work towards their strengths of setting achievable goals but also their Teachers work closely with them which gives the Teachers the chance of enhancing and developing their 21st century skills. This is a win-win situation for both the studentsand Teachers at Ubiko.

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As part of our visit we familiarized ourselves with the Aims of the Project

  1. to develop the curriculum,
  2. to find effective methods to promote self-regulation among primary school pupils (age 10-11),
  3. to develop teamwork among teachers,
  4. to enrich multi-locational learning in school context.

A careful look at these aims summarizes everything into two main areas which are self-regulation of students and collaborative learning.

Palmer et al., (2005) Identifying teacher expertise: An examination of researchers’ decision making. Educational Psychologist, 40 (2005), pp. 13–26

The impact of Teachers on the development of students I so huge that it cannot be overlooked by Researchers. They make an attempt to research into what makes an expert Teacher and the necessary qualities that ought to be exhibited. Teachers play a significant role in their profession and are also responsible for their own developmental growth and that of the students. According to Jon Saphier, the author of John Adam’s Promise: How to have good schools for all our children, not just for some. In this book, he identifies six areas of Teaching Expertise which are indicated as follows:

Management Expertis

Motivational Expertise

Instructional Expertise

Planning Expertise

Craft knowledge or Pedagogical content knowledge

Understanding the connections between concepts in the content.

He highlights the fact that teaching expertise requires having repertoire of ways that one can use to handle the task of teaching and these areas define the abilities and capacities of the Teacher regarding expertise. This is what truly makes an Expert Teacher.The article focuses on a set of criteria which are used by Researchers to identify Teacher expertise. They base their variable markers on standards which indicates the expertise of a Teacher. It is important to refer from the article that according to No Child Left Behind Act P. L. 107–110, 2002, standards require that all students will be taught by Highly Qualified teachers in the core academic areas. The term quality over here, according to the article, by the definition of the Act, means Teachers must meet the following conditions (a) a college degree; (b) full certification or licensure; and (c) demonstrated content knowledge. This gives the notion that the term quality should embrace some characteristics which are unique in the delivery of Teachers.

Sternberg (1998) points out that researchers similarly use the term “gifted teacher” without reflecting on the nature of this terminology, which further obscures the definition of an “expert teacher.”

From the article they propose variable markers which are used to identify Teacher Expertise and these are listed as follows:

(a) Years of experience,

(b) social recognition,

(c) professional or social group membership, and

(d) Performance based criteria.

On the issue of years of experience, the article makes it clear that from their investigations, there was consistency in the number of years which defined expert teacher and that they acknowledge experience as very necessary. This level of practice is consistent with that used in other fields as the minimum level of practice required to establish expertise (see Ericsson et al., 1993). However, they emphasis on the type of teaching experience that foster the development of expertise because expertise has consistently been found to be domain bound and context bound.

On the issue of an Expert Teacher, it could actually be considered in some contest as broad and this article tries to conduct a comprehensive review of investigations on expert Teachers and to identify markers used by Researchers to select these Teachers.

Social nomination and recognition is also a necessary condition for determining expertise (Agnew et al., 1997). Researchers identify this as the effectiveness of teaching and the necessary recognition by the supervisor, colleagues etc. Berliner (1994) contends that teachers’ knowledge of their students and instructional processes differentiates expert from novice teachers. They claim that Teacher’s expertise is identified by others who acknowledge the extraordinary skills. This makes it possible for people to really appreciate the skills that the Teacher possesses and even reflects in the outcomes of the students. Acknowledging that expertise is, in part, a social designation, implies that different constituencies may apply widely divergent criterion to identify expertise, and that these criteria may vary greatly in terms of their reliability and validity (Agnew et al., 1997)

Teaching Performance has also been considered as a criterion for identifying Teacher expertise. The performance criterion is assessed through for example the achievement of the students. It is however noted that, identified Teacher expertise in most cases vary in their ability to promote student performance in all domains in that taken for instance the learning outcomes of students may be demonstrated in varied areas such as self-regulation, creative and analytical thinking etc.

Professional and group membership plays a critical role in identifying a Teacher’s expertise. In summary the article provides that the membership is based on the certification of the Teachers regarding having teaching certification to doctoral degrees. There is also evidence that content knowledge and teacher’s knowledge and skills in classroom management, student assessment, and curriculum development all contribute to teachers’ effectiveness (Allen, 2003). From the article, since certification is not directly linked to the critical domain of the Teachers knowledge and skills, it should not be the basis of strictly identifying the teacher’s expertise. This corroborates with what Schulman proposes. Shulman (1987) similarly proposes that teaching expertise is grounded in teacher content, pedagogical, and curriculum knowledge.

In a nutshell, the visit to Ubiko has been a great and wonderful experience which doesn’t only enrich our understanding about classroom infrastructure, but as a way of appreciate the role of Teacher especially when identifying expertise in them. The article makes interesting revelations regarding the expertise of Teachers and makes suggestions as to what could be considered the appropriate options when identifying teacher expertise. Among others they explain according to various researchers that although there were variability in the outcome of Researchers on how they identify expert teachers, some were consistent with the criteria provided.

References

Palmer et al., (2005) Identifying teacher expertise: An examination of researchers’ decision making. Educational Psychologist, 40 (2005), pp. 13–26

John Adam’s Promise: How to have good schools for all our children, not just for some.

SRL BLOG POST 4

ICE NOTE 4

HOW TO IMPLEMENT EFFECTIVE INTERVENTIONS AND HOW TO ASSESS SRL?

Planning.

Describe your solo phase task.

My solo task concerns the assessment of self-regulated learning and how to interventions could be implemented in self-regulated learning situations. This task is really important for the understanding of the whole process. I intend to continue with the same process of having to read the provided articles and then supplement them with the lecture given by Ernesto Panadero while I continue to write the ice notes.

What topics and concepts are related to your task?

This time round, we will dwell on self-regulation measurement and its assessment methods. I’m interested in the meta-analysis as well as assessment criteria in the area of Self-regulated learning. Again, I hope that different methods of self-regulated assessment will be touched.

Set a goal for this work period

My goal for this task includes having to understand how to acquire self-assessment skills and be able to apply them in my studies. I believe that I will be able to read the articles and attend the lecture by Ernesto Panadero. Again, I will first read the articles and draw some important points and complement them with information from the lecture.

How confident are you that you will achieve your goal?

I am sure about achieving this goal owing to the fact that I have the required articles at my disposal and also I intend to attend the lecture which would be given by Ernesto. With these plans in place, I am quite confident that I will be able to achieve my goal.

Articles

Panadero, E., & Alonso-Tapia, J. (2013). Self-assessment: Theoretical and practical connotations. When it happens, how is it acquired and what to do to develop it in our students? Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 11(2), 551-576. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14204/ejrep.30.12200

Self-Assessment is viewed as the process in which students use as a means to self-regulate their learning. Self-assessment is defined as the qualitative assessment of the learning process, and of its final product, realized on the basis of pre-established criteria (Panadero & Alonso-Tapia, 2013). When students begin to execute tasks, they must plan and set periodic goals especially based on the assessment criteria. From the article, they propose that self-assessment could be seen as instructional process which Teacher can use to help students to assess their learning. Quite often than not when Teachers are designing instructions, they neglect the aspect which could help students to boost their self-assessment. On the other hand, students also have the capabilities of self-reflecting on their learning process which could be used as an assessment criteria for their studies. According to Zimmerman model, self-assessment is considered as a self-regulatory phase. The students can initiate the assessment by themselves through the means of self-reflection. When students self-regulate, reflection of what they have learnt is seen at the last stage which would give them clue to evaluate their own performance. In a nutshell assessment criteria are assessed by both the teacher and the student and these criteria are illustrated below:

  1. Can be external, when the teacher sets the guidelines
  2. Can be external in origin but may have been accepted internally when the teacher discusses and negotiates with the student
  3. Can be internal in origin when the student set his/her own criteria based on the characteristics of learning task. When these are considered it will eventually aid students to select appropriate learning strategies.

Acquisition of Self-Assessment skills

Considering the complex nature of self-assessment skills which could take students long time when performing tasks, it is expedient for Teachers to support their students to acquire these essential skills. Students themselves may not have what it takes to become autonomous in self-assessment unless they are guided for a while by their Teachers as a way of instructional support.

The article provides that there should be conditions which would help to promote self-assessment and these are listed below:

  1. Awareness of the value of self-assessment- students must be made aware of how important this is in their studies
  1. Access to the criteria the assessment is based on- students must know the criteria which would help them to plan before during and after task.
  2. The tasks assessed need to be specific- tasks must be self-explanatory without any difficulties in understanding to students

Also there are instructional aid which helps in promoting self-assessment and they have been identified as follows:

  1. Self-assessment modelling.
  1. Direct instructions and assistance for Self-assessment
  2. Cues to help to know when to self-assess
  3. Practice
  4. Opportunities to review and improve the process of task realization.

As noted in the article, there is the three main instructional help of promoting Self-assessment. These are explained below.

  1. The Self-grading or self-assessment without specified assessment criteria. This is when students grade or assess their performance without an assessment criteria at the end of a task. This will eventually may hinder self-regulatory skills because the assessment criteria were not given before the beginning of the task. It does not guarantee the development of Self-Regulated learning.
  1. Self-Assessment using Rubrics. Rubric is an assessment criteria as well as scoring tool which aids students to evaluate their performance based on the criteria. This Assessment tool has these components:
  1. the assessment criteria,
  2. scale for self-grading the different quality levels, and
  3. Short description indicating the quality level standards.
  1. Self-Assessment through the use of Scripts. Scripts are seen as set of that are organized systematically and focus on the process of to perform a given task. This has a way of guiding the students to improve their Self-regulation skills because students are able to follow the questions given by the assessment criteria and reflection becomes possible and effective as well.

Dignath, C., Buettner, G., Langfeldt, H-P. (2008). How can primary school students learn self-regulated learning strategies most effectively? A meta-analysis on self-regulation training programmes.

Self-regulated learning relating to children can be of a challenge and also interesting owing to the fact that meta-cognitive skills are difficult to apply among them considering strategies that adults focus on. But nonetheless, research point to the fact that children engage in activities that show they are self-regulating. “the major advantage of training children how to self-regulate their learning is that during these first crucial years in school, students set up learning and self-efficacy attitudes, which are easier to change than when students have already developed disadvantageous learning styles and learning behavior.” Dignath et al (2008). At this point, it is quite better to instill the behavior of self-regulation in them rather than when they have fully developed opposing attitudes which hinder self-regulation. It is still difficult considering the metacognitive knowledge children may have for example on task understanding even though instructions are given in the elementary school.

There are intervention measures to promote Self-regulated learning. Students can develop strategies based on their experience and through trainings, SRL can be improved in students. Self-regulated learning training programs have a positive effect on learning outcomes, strategy use, and motivation even for primary school children. In the meta-analysis, the use of cognitive and metacognitive and motivational strategies are among the three main areas of benefits of intervention strategies in Self-regulated learning. The duration of intervention was also seen as point to consider with regard to performance and the impact of intervention length cannot be generalized to the other outcome categories in meta-analysis. This gives insight to the performance which is the highest effect in meta-analysis and it is so due to the reasons of age of students. Hattie et al. (1996), who showed that even younger students benefit more from study skills intervention than older students and adults. Young children show greater effects in motivational aspects.

Regarding effective intervention programs, training programs should be based on socio-cognitive theories. Cognitive training cover most importantly elaboration and problem solving strategies as well as repetitive and organizational strategies. Again, metacognitive aspects which deals with planning strategies-control, monitor and regulate learning and cognitive activities. Motivational strategies involves feedbacks-Causal attribution and self-efficacy beliefs which describes how learners explain their successes or failures that affects learning behavior, and provide knowledge about strategy use and about its benefit.

ICE NOTE 1

I was particularly interested in the types of SR measurement which the lecture of Ernesto Panadero covered. According to my understanding, Self-report which is linked to self-grading for example, is really important when we want to measure the assessment of students’ performance. A self-report inventory is a type of psychological test in which a person fills out a survey or questionnaire with or without the help of an investigator. It requires that the individual provide the necessary information most often without the investigator.

Self-grading will require the students to have a scoring by him/herself without any assessment criteria from the Teacher. He talks about observation of overt behavior where he uses the most widely accepted test of overt behavior which is the Marshmallow test. This captures the activities of the learner most especially, the verbal, actions and information on interactions.

The illustration of this test give credence to the fact that, there was some regulation of behavior of the children. The reliability of the test on the self-regulation of children to me cannot be over generalized in all other aspects of young children’s learning, for example in areas such as reading or writing.

The thinking aloud protocol also became one of the areas on self-regulation measurement that I have become familiar with. Students say aloud what they are thinking or doing which in itself reflects on meta-cognitive strategies which help students to become effective Self-regulated learners.

A video we watch clarify all doubts and gave a clear explanation. It is really important that students perform this in order to know and monitor their comprehension. I understood that, it is a way of directing your own behavior and increasing the techniques of learning how to learn.

ICE NOTE 2

My interest once again became heightened when I complemented my understanding with the acquisition of self-assessment skills. To me I feel that this is really important in our studies as we may rely on it to know how far we have come in our studies.

Why do we need to acquire and develop these essential skills during our studies? During the reflection stage of what I read in the articles coupled with other information from lectures and other sources, it is expedient to inculcate these skills which will make us actively aware of our strategies that we use when executing a task. The criteria for assessment; awareness of the value of self-assessment, access to the criteria the assessment is based on, the tasks assessed need to be specific are what I intend to emphasize on.

When students are highly aware of the value of the task, it become useful to the students in his/her learning. Again the students must get to know the criteria before starting the task, which would enable them to set goals, monitor their progress during the task execution, and assess their success when the task has been complement. In effect, I think it is highly essential that Teachers help students through various scaffolding methods for example the blog writing post, with clearly defined and specific task instructions to students. This helps students to grow and build their meta-cognitive strategies and deal with task effectively. It must also be noted that, this process is quite complex and challenging which could be taught by Teachers to students.

Reflection

Recall your solo phase planning. How well did you succeed? Why?

I think it was a great task this time round but I have been able to read the articles and attended the lecture which was given by Ernesto. This presupposes that I have been able to keep to the plan and have been successful with its implementation.

Describe one challenge that you had during your task performance.

The only challenge was how technically poor the quality of hearing and the flow of the lecture was. It wasn’t like many other lectures where we had face to face. Well the problem wasn’t about face to face but was with the hearing quality.

What did you manage with the challenge you faced? What would you do differently next time?

I had to rely on the technical expertise of the one who was in-charge of the equipment as well as the support of our Tutors. I will actually not do anything different because it was beyond my expertise.

References

Panadero, E., & Alonso-Tapia, J. (2013). Self-assessment: Theoretical and practical connotations. When it happens, how is it acquired and what to do to develop it in our students. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 11(2), 551-576. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14204/ejrep.30.12200

Dignath, C., Buettner, G., Langfeldt, H-P. (2008). How can primary school students learn self-regulated learning strategies most effectively? A meta-analysis on self-regulation training programmes.

SRL BLOG POST 3

Describe your solo task?

My solo task deals with learning strategies and SRL. In this task, I aim to start by defining the scope of the work and start to read the articles and then write my ice notes. I will read thoroughly in that the articles form the basis of my group collaboration task. I intend to develop deep understanding about learning strategies which seem to me, the most appropriate techniques that a student might need in order to be effective and efficient learner. I will proceed, after the panning phase, article readings and ice noting, the reflection of my work.

What topics and concepts are related to your task?

The topics and concepts were really more as compared to other tasks that I have done. It comprises of metacognitive strategies, learning strategies and the issue of getting familiar with metacognitive knowledge. Again, it is interesting to note issues regarding distinctions among concepts and topics, for example, active and passive rehearsal strategies which all are under rehearsal strategy. I wish to extend my understanding and perhaps to know how best I can be an active learner.

Set a goal for this work period

My goal in the task deals with widening of scope and delving deep into concepts and topics which are related to my task. With this I would have to gain adequate understanding about my topic which would enable me to present our case study as well as teaching session.

How confident are you that you will achieve your goal?

I am optimistic that I will be able to complete this task. I have set up my plans right and I hope that with the plan I will be able to follow it systematically. I feel enthusiastic particularly when I am expected to give my understanding regarding this topic. I feel confident of achieving this goal.

Butler

Metacognitive Knowledge and Task interpretation as according to the article are needed in order to have effective learning outcome. Metacognitive knowledge involves knowledge about cognition in general, as well as awareness of and knowledge about one’s own cognition. Metacognitive knowledge includes knowledge of general strategies that might be used for different tasks, knowledge of the conditions under which these strategies might be used, knowledge of the extent to which the strategies are effective, and knowledge of self (Flavell, 1979; Pintrich et al., 2000; Schneider & Pressley, 1997). For example, learners can know about different strategies for reading a textbook as well as strategies to monitor and check their comprehension as they read.The student has to be familiar on what the task requires which will aid him/her to be able to perform as expected. In doing so, there is the need for the learner to be aware of the following which are very much essential to successful learning.

  1. Task Purpose: this gives insight into task requirements in that every task has different purpose, for example reviewing article may take less of reflection than to write an article.
  1. Task structure: when student are approaching a task, they must also be conscious of how the task is structured. The style of writing for example must be of importance to a strategic learner. How well the writing is organized by way of selecting the most appropriate vocabulary, syntactic structure etc. for it to be suitable is a key to success.
  2. Task component: During for example writing process, it is quite essential that the task may be split into different writing stages where they would rely on their knowledge on interpreting task demands.

It is worth noting that students’ understanding about task interpretation may said to have been faulty when they lack concrete understanding on the three elements which are task purpose, task structure and task component. Butler puts it that problems in task interpretation arises when students show signs of faulty understanding of task purpose, task structure and task component. We tend to understand that there may be probable reasons why task interpretation becomes problematic. These reasons may be due to individual problem with processing or the history regarding their exposure.

It is critical that Educators must support in task interpretation especially when designing learning environment which should include careful planning and structuring. As made evident from the article, there is the need for students to be supported in order to be aware of the task interpretation as a learning activity. Again the Teachers must consider the intended goals for students’ learning as well as the specificity of task requirements in the said activity. What is communicated about the nature of the academic activity and what is required of the students in order to complete the task. It is seen as an interplay role between the learner and the educator but here we highly recommend that in order to avoid misinterpretation of task among students, the Educators must ensure that students engage in self-evaluation and they should interpret the feedback and evaluation.

Weinstein

This focus on the kind of strategies students adopt in order to approach learning activities. According to the article, it is extremely difficult to give a strict definition to this concept but in general they are the needed strategies which students find it important and helpful according to their interest and backgrounds. They involve the use of cognition, metacognition, motivation, affect and behavior especially to increase the probability of succeeding in learning.

Who is a strategic learner? By virtue of what the article provides, a strategic learner is the one who has the component of Strategic Learning. Strategic learners have the skill, will, and self-regulation needed to be effective and efficient learners in varied educational environments (Weinstein and others, 2004, 2006). The Will, Skill and Self-Regulation is the three essential elements which is required from students in order to become strategic learners. In other models such as Zimmerman, the Self-regulation component is made to represent the three elements by way of merging skill and will which are meant to be present in self-regulation component.

Skills refers to critical knowledge about and knowing how to use learning strategies and other thinking skills. This encompasses the knowledge a student needs about performance demands of different types of academic task. It deals about the knowledge one has to possess about his/her weaknesses and strengths as well as his/her knowledge about learning strategies.

Will refers to the motivation and affective components of strategic learning that either contribute to or detract from academic success. It involve the planning and setting up goals which would be short or long term.

Self-Regulation is seen as the engine of the whole process which helps students to manage their strategic learning on both global and real-time levels. It is a way of using an instrumental approach to help seeking managing motivation for learning on global level. On the issue of real-time level, it is pretty much involved using metacognition to monitor learning success as well as monitoring and regulating the use of effective and efficient learning strategies.

For any strategy to be useful to the student there is a precondition of acquiring three key knowledge:

  1. They have to know the basic definition of the strategy (declarative knowledge)
  2. How to use the strategy ( Procedural Knowledge)
  3. Under what conditions it may be more or less useful for them (Conditional knowledge).

On the issue of learning strategies, the article cited three main types of learning strategies which are as follows: Rehearsal strategy, elaborative strategy and organizational strategy.

Rehearsal strategy involves the use of repetitive exposure to what the student is trying to learn. Student become focused on what must be learnt and through the strategy of repeating, they tend to grasp the meaning of it. This type of strategy is mostly used in language learning where students use flash cards to memorize meaning of words or it could be used where students may actually learn definition of concepts repetitively. It is important to draw distinction in rehearsal strategy. In rehearsal strategy we tend to have passive and active which may result in different outcome or the processes of getting the understanding may differ depending on the strategy used. Passive rehearsal is mindless repetition and usually does not result in meaningful learning that will pass the test of time. It mostly involve simple repetition but doesn’t involve cognitive processes. The other aspect is the active rehearsal strategy which involves the use of more cognitive processing and meaning building and it tends to be more effective for reaching learning goals. When active learning strategy is used, it reinforce the learning to be more meaningful and perhaps as a way of widening the scope of understanding what has been learnt.

Elaborative strategy involves adding to or modifying in some way the material one is trying to learn to make it more meaningful and memorable. It requires more of cognitive processing and it is a way of creating meaningful learning. This type of strategy can be considered in many forms such as creating analogies, paraphrasing, summarizing as well as using compare and contrast which tend to build deeper understanding of what is being learnt. Simplest form of elaboration deals with paraphrasing and summarizing whereas complex elaboration deals with using analogical reasoning (creating analogies between and among material being learned), comparing and contrasting similar material, and practicing the application of a new principle to sample problems all require more complex thinking than simple paraphrasing and summarizing.

Organizational strategy could actually be seen as an extension of elaborative strategy which focuses primarily on reorganizing and elaborating new material in some type of graphic form. Doing this form of learning opens the learner to a more active and complex cognitive processes.

As seen from the article, there is the need for strategy repertoire. Any of the above strategy is actually not the best alternative to the learner. This type of strategy has been identified as the most effective and efficient strategy that a student can rely on. It comprises of the three main learning strategies which are Rehearsal, Elaborative and Organizational strategy. Although it is often open to debate which strategy is preferred by a Learner, they hold the view that every task requires a different learning strategy. This will then require that a student must have knowledge of the various strategies which will be available for their use depending on the task at hand. Students need these tools to help them mindfully determine their preferences and to access alternative strategies when their preferences do not work.

There is the need also for Teachers to develop interventions to help students to be more strategic and self-regulated learners and these actually could be done by way of creating learning center handouts as well as promoting and implementing a meta-curriculum.

Ormrod, J.E. (2009). Basic components of memory.

In this article we tend to familiarize ourselves with the distinction made between learning and memory. It describes learning as the acquisition of new information or skills while memory is related to the ability to recall information that has previously been learnt and stored. It is actually termed as the location because it is where what has been learnt is kept or stored. The memory is the powerful tool that learners must be aware of because not all of what is learnt is kept or better put everything learnt cannot be retrieved. It may then depend on how well it was stored or on which mode or strategy it was kept.

The Dual-store model.

omrod

Storing of information can be a challenging task. The most prevalent human memory according Atkinson and Shiffrin has been categorized into three components which are sensory register, short term memory and long term memory. From their perspective, input from the environment first enters the sensory register where the information stays for a shorter period of time and then it undergoes preliminary cognitive processes before getting to the short term memory where the information is further processed. From this point it moves to the Long term memory. The capacity of the sensory register is actually unlimited. With short term memory, it is said that, apart from storage, it also processes information which involve cognitive processing. Again, insight has been drawn to the fact that there are categories in memory which are epistemic and semantic memory while on the other hand we have categorized knowledge into Procedural and conceptual knowledge.

Rehearsal and retrieval and organizing are noted as the 3 control processes which affect that the functioning of the working memory. If you want to keep the information, rehearsal is used to keep the information in memory so it is lost. On the organizing level, there is a way of consuming information which could then be easier for retrieval. This could actually be done by chunking the information. When you chunk, you increase the probability of storing large of information which can be stored in the working memory. During retrieval, there is a process of scanning till the most needed information which has been stored are found.

There is the need to emphasize that attention is important for learning. People’s attention are mostly drawn to things which stimulate their interest. In most cases, content materials of teaching and presentation could hold students’ attention when they are made attractive. When attention is held and focused on the information, it provides a suitable platform where learning eventually takes place.

ICE NOTE 1

Regarding the issue of how students become strategic learners, I think the strategies of learning should carefully be selected by the students considering most importantly which one is to e used for which task. As indicated in the articles which I read, for a learner a least one of these strategies could actually be taken into consideration but it may not be the best strategy to be used for all task.

A good self-regulated learner should be mindful of the strategy that is suitable for a particular task but he/she may also be conscious of the fact that having knowledge about the various learning strategies is perhaps the most important tool that you must possess. If a student has a faulty metacognitive knowledge, he/she may find it extremely difficult to understand task performance as well as task demands. Students have to develop a plan, monitor and evaluate if they really want to demonstrate critical thinking regarding the selection and adoption of learning strategies.

One unique aspect is the use of the strategy repertoire which is highly recommended that students possess as part of their strategy when approaching tasks. But of course it requires that students possess declarative, procedural as well as conditional knowledge before they will be able to recognize which strategy even to select.

When full knowledge has been gained regarding the selection of a learning strategy they will actually come to appreciate the fact that, the strategy repertoire is the most likely antidote to all academic task which students may face. Students have to get knowledge of having the three main strategies which you would use depending on the academic task one faces.

ICE NOTE 2

From the lecture which was given by Malmberg, I got the opportunity to understand how effective and efficient learner must strategize by way of adopting to the following acronyms below. It actually deals with how to process information regarding studies.

In order to make self-regulation part and parcel of your learning process, one has to be conscious of the fact that you must select the best information which are needed for your task and being able to weed out the irrelevant ones. Again you should try and monitor how well you have understood what you have learnt and if possible refer to your prior knowledge. You also organize your informational content to carry more meaning while you rehearse what you have learnt in several ways which could aid in understanding. Finally there is the need to translate the ideas into use.

S- Select

Regarding the information which are present, you should be able to eliminate the odd ones and select the ones which are really important and will aid in your work.

M – Monitor

It is important to monitor your understanding especially regarding what you are learning. You take into consideration your understanding of the current task and possibly rely closely on what you already know or are familiar with.

A – Assemble.

This deal with the way that one has to make his/her information arranged in such a form and structure that will be more meaningful. It must be well organized and the content must depict all the necessary information and explanation which are required in the task.

R – Rehearse.

It is actually effective to make learning more meaningful and practical by always trying to rehearse what you are learning or have learnt in different ways.

T – Translate,

Make a move to translate what you have learnt into actual use and make mind map out of them by means of reflection.

Reflection

Recall your solo phase planning. How well did you succeed? Why?

I believe it actually went quite well. I was actually much interested in gaining deeper understanding regarding learning strategies. I have been able to grasp the concept and being able to apply to our group collaboration task. I think I was able to do it because I knew it was that mandatory that I explore further in the articles which were much related not only to my solo task but to our group collaboration work.

Describe one challenge that you had during your task performance.

Well I actually read one other article from Butler which was not directly related to the task. I downloaded the wrong one which gave me additional work to do. Aside that I did not actually face any challenge regarding the reading of the articles.

What did you manage with the challenge you faced? What would you do differently next time?

I finally got the right one when I had the opportunity to brainstorm with my group member during one of our collaborative group learning situations. I think I would not do anything extremely different except for being careful which article is directly related to my task and which are not.

Reference

Butler, D. L. and Cartier, S. C. (2004). Promoting Effective Task Interpretation as an Important Work Habit: A Key to Successful Teaching and Learning. Teachers College Record, 106 (9), pp. 1729-1758.

Weinstein, C. E., Acce, T. W., & Jung, J. (2011). Self-regulation and learning strategies. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 126, 45–53. doi:10.1002/tl.443

Ormrod, J.E. (2009). Basic components of memory. In Human learning (pp.166-186). Upper Saddler River, NJ: Allyn & Bacon. (CA).

SRL BLOG POST 2

Motivations and Emotions

Describe your solo task.

The lecture given by Hanna Jarvenoja concerning motivation and emotions in self-regulated learning was an important one which drove home attention and gave insights into motivational sources in SRL. This topic stands as the central theme of Self-regulated learning in that, the individual must be able to battle with the regulations of such motivation and emotions which would then pave way for other aspects such as assessment and evaluation follow. In this task, I plan of reading the articles which have been provided to us by our Teachers in wiki. After digesting the article, I will complement it with the lecture which was given by Hanna.

What topics and concepts are related to your task?

As noticed by Schutz and Pekrun (2007) the role of emotions and their regulation has rarely been the main focus in studies of learning and teaching, I am interested to get understanding of regulation of emotions as well as motivations. It is interesting to learn from other articles such as Ainley, who puts affects as one of the key elements that has a role to play in motivation and emotions.

Set a goal for this task.

I hope to gain in-depth understanding about the theoretical framework of motivation and emotions as well as acquire the practical implementation of Self-regulatory processes. I should be able to relate concepts and make a conceptual mind map as I begin to develop interest in Self-regulatory process.

How confident are you that you will achieve your goal.

Achieving this goal is very much important and I consider it as a way of building up my understanding in future course and eventually an area that could support my thesis. I am quite hopeful that I will be able to achieve this if I have the reading materials available and concentrate on the lecture which was given by Hanna, I will be able to consider this task completed successfully.

Articles.

Järvenoja, H., & Järvelä, S. (2009). Emotion control in collaborative learning situations – do students regulate emotions evoked from social challenges? British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 463-481.

Emotions and Motivations according Jarvenoja and Javerla were put into collaborative learning context. In this sense, self-regulation which is usually seen as individual process have been tested in a collaborative context to actually realized the fact that it could be complemented by socially shared regulation processes. In many researches, they agree that individuals regulate their emotions. Emotion regulation is the learner’s ability to monitor, evaluate and change the occurrence, intensity and duration of an emotional experience. Wolters (2000). When individuals tend to work in collaborative situations, the regulation of such emotion and motivations become socially shared. It becomes so because, they have to negotiate their goals and objectives collectively and make sure to repair any damage that arise from group misunderstanding. The Learner regulates individually as well as collaboratively.

Emotions evolve through interactions and serve as important indicators of the participants’ motivations and cognitions, communicating what has been experienced, is being experienced, as well as was anticipated (Ford, 1992).

It is interesting to know that classroom as a learning environment gives enough insight to Researchers that could possibly help increase the understanding of how emotions can have a direct link with motivations. According to Brophy 1999, because students do not necessarily choose to be in particular classrooms or to participate in assigned learning activities, they will naturally experience a variety of emotions, motivations, and construct diverse understandings, often conflicting ones. It is then valid to say that the emotions of individuals in classroom environments are likely to be affected by the fact that it did not arise from their own volition or their participation in that environment was not based on their motivations.

It is equally important to note that not all collaborative learning situations become successful. As rightfully put by these Researchers; collaboration can create positive emotions and support motivation, and these socio-emotional aspects contribute to advanced interaction and communication, and engagement in the co-construction of knowledge (Jones & Isroff, 2005).

Yet, these situations can also evoke negative emotions and create novel motivational challenges for individuals when their characteristics, goals, and demands conflict (Jarvela, Lehtinen, & Salonen, 2000; Kreijns, Kirchner, & Jochems, 2003). In a nutshell, notwithstanding the fact that collaboration can actually contribute to shared regulation of motivation and emotions they could lead to unsuccessful outcomes when these are opposing goals from individuals.

The situative approach (Volet & Jarvela, 2001) considers that in social learning situations the meanings of actions, including shared regulation of emotions, are negotiated and co-constructed among group members in context rather than just individual processes influenced by others.

It is interesting to note how students use different forms of regulation to maintain their collaborative learning situations. It was made evident that there were instances of socially shared regulations as well as individual shared regulations. Again, knowing the differences among group participant also enables the avoidance of emotional conflict which can affect the group negatively.

Wolters, C. A. (2003). Regulation of Motivation: Evaluating an Underemphasized Aspect of Self-Regulated Learning. Educational Psychologist, 38 (4), pp. 189-205.

Motivation has also been identified as one area of the learning process that students actively self-regulate within social cognitive models of self-regulated learning (Zimmerman, 1994). The ability of Learners to control aspects of their motivations is actually essential to the learning outcome as well as achievements. Wolters makes it clear by having classification to motivation regulation strategies which according to the article must meet two criteria:

1) Learners must be deliberately acting to attempt influencing their motivation and

2) Strategies used should actually help or improve student’s motivation and subsequent performance.

Learners with extreme high motivations have less tendency to regulate their motivations and those with less motivations do not make the move to even regulate their motivations.

Again there is that relationship between regulation of emotions and that of volition. Volition aims at selecting and maintaining goals associated to task completion.

Regulation of motivation relies on the intensity of engagement, self-efficacy, and interest throughout the whole process of completing the task.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2011). Motivational sources and outcomes of self-regulated learning and performance. In B. J. Zimmerman, & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 49–64). New York: Routledge.

On the issue of motivation regulation strategies, the article posits different strategies for regulating motivations which include:

Self-consequating. This explains how students by their own will administer reward or punishments by themselves for having achieved a goal or a task. It usually give the student the cause to celebrate after achieving the set target. For example, it could be that a student promise of watching an enticing movie after get an article reviewed for his assignments. This concept is actually deeply rooted in Behaviorist theory.

Goal-Oriented Self-talk. This really gives the student the chance of eliciting of reasons why there is persistence of completing a task or the reasons he/she gives to complete a task. These reasons are often given by the students and he/she works towards it. It could be that he/she has the reason of improving his/her knowledge or the acquisition of a skill which may be needed in employment after school.

Interest Enhancement. In this strategy, for example gamification has been detected as one way of making the student to improve his interest and motivations as well as making his/her studies enjoyable.

Environmental Structuring. When considering the effective learning outcome with respective to motivation regulation, there is the need to make sure that the environment becomes conducive and may not have distractive force which could hinder the learning outcome of the student. It is to reduce the probability of distraction from other external influences for example when there are other exciting activities going on around where a student is studying.

Self-handicapping. This is when students make obstructions which then translates to task becoming more challenging and difficult to deal with. This in effect has a tendency of affecting motivations. The article illustrates with the example that putting off work, staying up late prior to an exam.

Attribution control. Students’ performance on task whether poor or better outcome is the causal attribution to increase their motivation. For example, according to the article students blame their academic setbacks on internal, stable, and uncontrollable causes, which use attributions that reflect internal and controllable factors because they lead to more adaptive motivational outcomes.

Efficacy Management. This explains how students are able to control their self-efficacy. The article puts it into three perspectives which include 1. Proximal goal setting, 2. Defensive Pessimism, 3. Efficacy self-task.

cyclical

CYCLICAL VIEW OF MOTIVATION.

ICE NOTE 1

From the perspective of Hanna Jarvenoja, I learnt to construct in my own opinion who a motivated learner is and the kind of qualities that such a person must possess. How highly motivated are you? And also how can being less motivated affect the learning outcomes of individuals? Motivated person often is the one who has interest I what he/she does and is able to regulate his/her learning. Of course, in her Lecture, she illustrated this by giving a scenario where you imagine a six inch wide, forty foot long board lying on the ground.

What would it take to get you to walk from one end of that board to the other? The imagination goes on till it reaches a point where you keep raising the board until finally it stretches from an open window on the top floor of one towering skyscraper to an open window in another skyscraper, forty feet away. What would you cross that board to gain or to preserve or to protect?

motiva

It really takes into account the regulation of motivations and emotions. It is essential to acknowledge the fact that interest plays a significant role in who becomes motivated to learn. Interest is conceptualized as an affective state that represents students’ subjective state of learning. In this, they investigate it from the point of view of being the state that arise from situational triggers or a well-developed interest.

In her lecture, it has been made clear once again about the distinction in interest, which she hinted as situational and individual interest. Jarvenja further gives a brief recap on the fact that Affect is equally important. For the learner to be persistent towards a task or completing an activity. Learning effectively by self-regulating learning process is itself a skill powered by will. (Schunk& Zimmerman, 2008). That is to say directed and regulated by motivation.

ICE NOTE 2

When considering effective learning, I always tend to ponder over several other issues which could enable the learner to achieve or complete task. As we have learnt from the various articles regarding, the sources of motivational strategies as well as for example having motivational goals, self-efficacy, Persistence, Determination etc. but it is interesting to deliberate on the fact that when individuals tend to work in collaborative situations, the regulation of such emotion and motivations become socially shared. They have to negotiate their goals and objectives collectively and make sure to repair any damage that arise from group misunderstanding. The Learner regulates individually as well as collaboratively. It is one important aspect which I consider as part of my understanding of Motivations and Emotions. In as much as the individual self-regulate his learning, there are situations where these regulation is put into social perspective. For example, we are compelled to work in collaborative situations and therefore would require our will and skill which must be seen in the group picture which should translate to effective learning. This point over here is the issue of socially shared regulation of motivation and emotions.

Reflections

Recall your solo phase planning. How well did you succeed? Why?

I think I have been able to keep closely to my goal by way of reading the articles which were provided in the wiki. I had to follow the link to download. I was able to read even though it was a tedious task. Having to read and put down points and then reflect on those points which are worth noting in your plan. In a nutshell, I feel relieved from this task and as I have actually learnt from the articles, you sometimes, say to yourself that after having completed a task, you will get yourself a gift or watch an exciting movie or something that is rewarding.

Describe one challenge that you had during your task performance.

Well during the performance of this task, I had registered for additional courses in the second year and also taking Finnish and French courses which made completing it on my planned and preferred time prolonged.

What did you manage with the challenge you faced? What would you do differently next time?

I think I realized that I needed to pass this course, so I had to put aside some other course which had their deadlines later than this and also seem a bit less relevant. Doing this was one way I felt gave me the time and energy to work on my task. I think I will actually consider the allocation of time for my tasks next time so that they may not crush and give me stress.

Reference

Järvenoja, H., & Järvelä, S. (2009). Emotion control in collaborative learning situations – do students regulate emotions evoked from social challenges? British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 463-481.

Wolters, C. A. (2003). Regulation of Motivation: Evaluating an Underemphasized Aspect of Self-Regulated Learning. Educational Psychologist, 38 (4), pp. 189-205.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2011). Motivational sources and outcomes of self-regulated learning and performance. In B. J. Zimmerman, & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 49–64). New York: Routledge.

SRL BLOG POST 1

Self-Regulated Learning blog post 1

Planning

  1. Describe your solo task.

As part of my task to write my understanding about Self-regulated learning, I must carefully plan and adapt strategies to execute this task. It deals with the ideas and reflections on the SRL course which we have kicked start. I would have to take the recommended article provided to us by our Tutors; Kristiina and Marika. Again, it is also important that I visit the lecture notes given by Sanna Jarvela. I hope that my planning would meet my expectations.

  1. What topics and concepts are related to your task?

In this task, it is mostly focused on the meaning of Self-regulatory learning. The structure of this task will explain the views and of course theories underlying self-regulated learning. It gives a brief overview of the various topics under SRL such as motivational and emotional factors in SRL, metacognition and learning strategies etc.

  1. Set a goal for this work period.

I would like to state that, my goal is to get me acquainted with theories in Self-regulated learning and gain enough understanding regarding what SRL entails in general. My goal is not limited to understanding the practicalities of SRL in our daily lives.

  1. How confident are you that you will achieve your goal?

I am quite confident that I will achieve this goal all because of the fact that, there is a supportive faculty who understand the learning process of their students and are willing to provide us with the need articles to be read and the support we may need in our learning process.

First of all, the articles I read provide concise definitions of Self-Regulated learning. I should say, although presented in different styles words, they share a lot of similarities and point to the same direction.

Articles

Zimmermann, B. J. (1989). A Social Cognitive View of Self-Regulated Academic Learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 81, No. 3, pp. 329-339.

Zimmerman links the definition of Self-Regulated learning to active participation of learners in their learning process which involves metacognition, behavior and motivation in a given context. He went on further to suggest self-observation, self-judgment and self-reaction as well as self-efficacy as the key elements needed to analyze self-regulation process.

Self-Efficacy is viewed as the perceived motivation that will sustain students engaged in a task from the beginning to the end. If a student has the belief that he/she is able to finish a given task, the inherently there is that motivational drive for his/behavior. There is the degree to which students exhibit self-efficacy and that students who tend to possess high self-efficacy tend to have high academic achievements.

efficacy

Self-Regulation also has a triad link between self, his/her behavior, and the environment. This is mostly viewed from the socio-cognitive perspective and this triad relationship is interrelated. The self has to do with the student’s beliefs as well as the values which lead to the regulation of his/her behavior and possibly the environment. The environment likewise has an effect on the person’s behavior especially when we consider the issue of social interactions.

Hadwin, A.F., Järvelä, S., & Miller, M. (2011). Self-regulated, co-regulated, and socially-shared regulation of learning. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.),Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 65-84). New York, NY: Routledge.

srl2

Hadwin et al tackles the self-regulated learning from the explanation of Adaptive learning style where the process of monitoring, evaluating and regulating these emotions and motivations are in changing trends. They hold the view that individuals are in charge of their learning process and are adaptive to new learning styles.

They contrast between Self-regulated learning, Co-regulated learning and socially shared regulation. Self-regulation has to do with planning, monitoring, and regulating cognition, behavior, and motivation. SR can occur in solo phase which is independent as well as collaboration.

On the issue of Co-regulated learning, there is that emergence of interaction mediating regulatory work involving the self and others in group work situations. The individuals in co-regulation negotiate and the individual affects the group and the group also reciprocate.

Socially shared regulation is viewed as collaborative and are Interdependent or collectively shared regulatory processes orchestrated in the service of a shared outcome. They monitor, evaluate, set goals, and plan as part of their strategies as a group.

Boekaerts, M. and Corno, L. (2005).Self-Regulation in the Classroom: A Perspective on Assessment and Intervention. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 54 (2), pp. 199-231.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2005.00205.x/full

Boekaerts et al have emphasized that there is not such simple and straight forward definition of Self-regulated learning. They claim that shifting definitions of Self-regulated learning have actually resulted in the change of measurement where Researchers have moved away from decontextualized measures of Self-regulated learning to domain specific and then on to context-sensitive measures. In a nutshell, they posit that when students have access to well refine volitional strategies which are manifested as good habits, they are more likely to invest in learning and get off the well-being track when a stressor blocks learning.

Boekaerts in her dual processing self-regulation model distinguishes SR as serving different purposes: she describes how learning goals interact with well-being goals. Boekaerts proposed a model of SR in which students face two priorities in classroom learning, to: 1) achieve growth goals that increase resources (e.g. students seek to deepen their knowledge or increase their cognitive and social skills) and to 2) maintain emotional well-being (e.g. to look smart and protect their ego, or they try to avoid harm and secure resources). Students strive to balance these two priorities.

In growth process student pursuit of self-chosen learning goals which is energized from the top down (Top-Down Self-Regulation) by motivation such as personal interest, values, expected satisfaction, and rewards. The SR is top down also because students’ adopted learning goals steer the process. When SR is triggered by cues from the environment it is bottom up (Bottom-Up Self-Regulation). Boekaerts’ model posits that students become concerned with emotional well-being when environmental cues signal that all is not well and that resources have to be redirected.

Ice note 1

One of the most vital area needed in Learning Sciences, to me is Self-Regulated Learning. This concept simply put by its definition according to Prof Sanna is thinking about one’s own thinking. This expression could actually seem to be a daunting explanation at first but a careful look at it will actually be fun because there are steps that one can follow to achieve it. When you think about your own thinking, it is called Meta cognition. It therefore requires regulation of your emotions and motivations. It is important to keep a balance between your emotions and motivations. In this same way, other experts in the field believe that it is too broad a concept to get a simple and straightforward definition.

From the lecture, I actually became aware that, self-regulation could be learnt and taught as well. It is not an inherent characteristic of a learner but rather an active process where the learner becomes aware of what he/she learns. Prof Sanna also made reference to the fact that, in Self-Regulated learning, you must actually plan, monitor and evaluate the process of your learning. This is an active process that the learner becomes engaged in. it is also considered as lifelong learning because it doesn’t seize but rather it improves as you go through the practice/process as many times as you do them.

Personally, I am tempted to believe as many times as you go through these active processes of monitoring, planning and regulating your emotions and motivations in your learning process, it becomes automatized as part of your knowledge which becomes available for spontaneous usage.

Ice note 2

The concept of Self-regulation is not limited to another important sub field of the Learning sciences; Collaborative learning. In this type of learning style, as illustrated by Jarvela, self-regulation is needed as co regulation and socially shared regulation. Each member with the group is responsible of regulating and monitoring their emotions and motivations which in effect helps the group as a whole. Again, if you are able to do this well, you do not help yourself per se but also others who may have difficulties in the group. You help in repairing damages that may arise out of difficulties in other members’ efforts in regulating and monitoring their emotions and motivations in collaborative learning situations.

In all, self-regulated learning plays a significant role in understanding what has been termed by many experts in the field of learning sciences as 21st Century skills. Thinking about your own thinking is what could be the basis of forming a formidable skills which will lead to effective learning outcomes.

Reflections

  1. Recall your solo phase planning. How well did you succeed?

From the view of SRL concepts and my understanding about it, I think I succeeded some. I would say that, for my first task, it mostly become a challenge because, I consider moving at a slower pace and I set in motion. Even though I have given some time to read the articles, I feel psychologically that, my learning strategies involve increasing your attention and focus on tasks as time goes by.

  1. Describe one challenge you encountered during your task performance.

Basically, I didn’t face any phenomenal challenge in this task except for my personal belief that, I mostly start a task with a slow move and then later fall deep into the task. Again, I considered the issue of making your blog interesting with images and other materials which in themselves paint a mental image of self-regulated learning and realized that it was a problem considering the fact that what exactly could be the best and would I have to put the images during the writing of the text or I do the insertion after I have written everything etc.

  1. What did you do to manage with the challenge?

I really had to compromise in a way to help me achieve the goal of this task. I have to assume that I have already done some work on SRL and this is the subsequent task that I am working. This actually gives me the mindset that even though it is the first, I can work on it as best as I would work on other tasks. Regarding the images, I think I have actually made up my mind to finish with the written text and then I would insert any images that I consider appropriate.

  1. What would you do differently next time?

I think in my next task, I don’t expect this psychological feeling in that, by that time I naturally fall deep into my actions. Also considering the nature of the article, I think I would have to consider other aspect of it and not solely based my understanding on the definitions but also delve into other parts of it to enrich my core understanding of self-regulated learning.

Boekaerts, M. and Corno, L. (2005).Self-Regulation in the Classroom: A Perspective on Assessment and Intervention. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 54 (2), pp. 199-231.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2005.00205.x/full

Zimmermann, B. J. (1989). A Social Cognitive View of Self-Regulated Academic Learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 81, No. 3, pp. 329-339.

Hadwin, A.F., Järvelä, S., & Miller, M. (2011). Self-regulated, co-regulated, and socially-shared regulation of learning. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.),Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 65-84). New York, NY: Routledge.

Manuscript 2: Scripting in Computer Supported Collaborative Learning.

Manuscript 2: Scripting in Computer Supported collaborative Learning

In contemporary field of learning sciences, it is inevitable to exclude the notion of Collaborative Learning. The term actually explains the coming together and performing a specific task that has a shared understanding of the group. It gives room for knowledge creation and building as well. In collaborative learning situations, we put into considerations, the individuals engagements and regulation processes by co regulating their learning. (Higgins, 2000). The individuals play an integral part during collaborative learning situations which ensure shared goals and responsibilities and timing as well.

However much we tend to discuss collaborative learning, it is pertinent to highlight the most important aspect of it which is Computer supported. It has not been the strongest arguments by many Learning Scientists and Instructional Designers that with computer supported component of collaborative learning, it will not lead to effective and expected results. In fact it was noted in Dillenbourg et al 2007; Collaborative Learning, with or without computers is not a recipe that automatically leads to expected learning outcomes but it suggests that research has pointed out other factors which are necessary for positive learning outcomes.

The Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning requires active involvement in the learning process. In this view, it is important to coordinate interaction in the group which will result in successful collaboration. It is obvious that the groups are equipped with technology which should aid them to perform tasks without extreme difficulties that traditional method of collaboration would have confronted. But from the previous assertion given, it is actually not enough to ensure effectives and quality learning outcomes without the necessary instructional designs.

This really calls for a carefully designed instructions which would engage learners in group situation to have a definition of their goals, planning and implementation strategies. Scripting in Computer supported collaborative as highlighted by Armin Weinberger, Saarland University, they specify the sequence and they distribute and assign roles and learning activities in collaborative learning environments. It is quite clear that unless there is a defined structure in the goal, coordination will not be effective which eventually will lead to the breakdown of the motivation and success of the group. Scripts offer the effective method or guideline for the learner to achieve a prescribed task.

In Computer supported collaborative learning scripts, two levels of scripting are identified as Micro and Macro scripts. The Macro basically deals with sequencing learning arrangements; learning in group situation as well as resource distribution. On the other hand, Micro scripts focus primarily on role distribution in group learning situations.

There have also been examples of computer supported collaborative scripts which are elaborated extensively in the work of Prof. Pierre Dillenbourg. He cited the following as important examples of scripts in computer supported collaborative learning. The Grid Script; this according to the author is one of the most effective scripts in computer supported collaborative learning which makes use of Jigsaw; the ArgueGraph Scripts and the Universante Scripts among others.

Computer supported collaborative learning Scripts are structured according to five principle as explained by Armin Weinberger.

  1. Regulation of Learning Activities. In this aspect, tasks given by learners must aim at developing the internal scripts by way of taking the learning environment into consideration. The adaption of External scripts will eventually direct learners to a more defined tasks and the internal problem solving mechanism skills.
  1. Complementary Procedural Knowledge. This is a way of learners internalizing their knowledge during their learning process. Procedural knowledge has the tendency of helping to integrate and integrate those internalized knowledge.
  1. Process Oriented instruction. Instructions in scripts offer the alternative of designing the activities meant for the learners to perform in a more tactful manner. It is also worth noting that increasing task in itself could affect the outcome of group interactions.
  1. Substitution effect. Socio cognitive skills must be the focus of harnessing the learning potentials of individuals rather than task distribution or group coordination. Of course in computer supported learning environments, the learners must ensure that they invest efforts and time in coordination.
  1. Awareness induction. This centers on the creation of awareness and commitment to the task. The individuals in the group should be conscious of the roles and activities in the group.

In conclusion, Scripts in Computer Supported Collaborative Learning offer a unique opportunities in Instructional design so as to enhance effective group collaboration.

Dillenbourg, P. & Fischer, F. (2007). Basics of Computer-Supported Collaborative

Learning. Zeitschrift für Berufs- und Wirtschaftspädagogik. 21, pp. 111-130.

Dillenbourg, P. (2002). Over-scripting CSCL: The risks of blending collaborative learning with instructional design. Three worlds of CSCL. Can we support CSCL, 61-91.

Videos by Armin Weinberger

A new day of appearance…

ARCHIE - WIN_20141025_122741

This picture was taken at 5:35am on Friday.

It was that early in the morning when I actually wok up from my sleep. I could not believe for a second whether I was dreaming about stories I have heard about snow sheets in polar north. I think it was strange a bit for me because a day before that morning was a clear weather without any bit of snow on the ground.

This to me, reflects the changing nature of time and events and that it reveals to me the processes of my studies in LET program. We have many things to learn and I am gradually sinking into the understanding of the whole course and the Finnish Education system.

I would hope that one day, i will wake up to to see a new appearance of great knowledge in my studies.

it deals with technology driven reseach in Education